Insolvency Oracle

Developments in UK insolvency by Michelle Butler

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Proposed changes to Scotland and EU insolvency legislation gain clarity

In this blog, I compare the responses to the EC Insolvency Regulation consultation – including: should Schemes of Arrangement be included? – and comment on today’s AiB release on planned changes to Bankruptcy. Also hidden within the BIS consultation responses is a view of great improvements to Gazette searches planned for this year…

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Unanimous support for opting in to amended EC Insolvency Regulation

As I tweeted a week ago, the UK government has announced recently that it has decided to opt in to the proposal to amend the European Commission’s Regulation on insolvency proceedings, following unanimous support by those who responded to BIS’ consultation.

The ministerial statement and responses to the call for evidence can be found at:

I noticed that the consultation responses were almost unanimous in one other respect; I thought that the voice for excluding Schemes of Arrangement from the Regulation’s scope – which would be possible under the revised Regulation, as currently proposed by the Commission – came through particularly loud and clear. Respondents cited the success stories that would not have been possible had Schemes been included in the Regulation; the fact that Schemes are often used for purposes other than insolvent restructurings; and that they are not always fully collective processes and thus do not really meet the criteria for proceedings included in the Regulations in any event.

There was a lone voice suggesting an alternative, however: appreciating the contentious nature of the issue, Paul Omar of Nottingham Trent University suggested a compromise whereby the jurisdictional bases for Schemes might be tightened up so that there should be more than just an arguable connection with the UK or benefit for creditors in order for UK courts to sanction such Schemes. I suspect that the other respondents will hope that such a compromise will not be necessary.

Other areas of apparent agreement between the respondents included a request for clarity over the proposed not-less-than 45 days timescale for foreign creditors to lodge claims; several parties had spotted that it was not clear whether this would apply, not only to submitting claims for dividend purposes, but perhaps also for voting purposes, which would be quite impractical, particularly for votes invited to commence proceedings. Several also asked for consideration to be given to providing mechanisms to avoid frivolous challenges to the opening of main proceedings, as these could create uncertainty and delays, which could de-rail some rescue or recovery plans.

Finally, I was interested in the response by the National Archives, which reported positively on the Gazette Platform project to improve free access to insolvency information “due for launch later this year”. The response included an illustration of one aspect of the planned new service: a timeline of insolvency events, so that all the key dates identified in Gazette notices for a single company (or insolvent individual?) appear on the same page – I like it!

More on the Scottish Bankruptcy Bill

The AiB’s equality questionnaire issued today ( includes a summary of the proposed changes in policy that are intended to materialise in the “New Bankruptcy (Scotland) Act 2013”. I haven’t cross-referred them to previous missives – and I am sure that readers who have attended an AiB stakeholder event will know these inside out – but I thought I would list those that made me raise an eyebrow:

• The AiB is continuing with the “No Income/No Asset” product for people who have been on income-related benefits for at least 6 months – and presumably this will have some benefits over LILAs, e.g. cheaper entry, swifter exit? Whilst I can see the advantages, it seems a shame that people in very low-paid employment might be barred access to a NINA.
• Mandatory advice from an approved money adviser prior to applying for any form of statutory debt relief – personally, I’m pleased to see this proposal repeated.
• “Altering the process for discharge of debtors so the trustee applies, showing cooperation with creditors (subject to appropriate appeals)” – how will this work? Does that mean that there will be no such thing as an automatic discharge period?
• Creditors will have to submit claims within 120 days of the trustee giving notice. “Where creditors do not submit their claims by this deadline, they would have to justify late submission or risk losing their dividend.” I see the advantage of putting some pressure on creditors to react more quickly, although personally I am not sure what is wrong with the current process (I’m guessing that Scotland is the same as E&W in this respect?) whereby a late-proving creditor cannot disturb a dividend, but can hope to catch up when the next dividend is declared. I also suspect that most of the difficulties in paying out complete dividends lie in creditors who have submitted claims but based on current information the trustee does not feel able to admit them.

Still, in general it’s all good stuff to see the AiB’s proposals gaining clarity and momentum.

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Proposals to Reform EC Insolvency Regulation: Better to be inside the tent?

If you, like me, were dissuaded from exploring the EC’s proposal on revising the European Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings, issued on 12 December 2012, by reason of its sheer length, you might find the Insolvency Service’s recent Call for Evidence useful in summarising its potential reach into the UK.

The Insolvency Service opened its Call for Evidence on 7 February 2013, with a closing date of 25 February. Whilst this may seem a tiny window in which to contemplate such a tome of proposals, I am certain that those for whom this holds most interest already will have spent quite some time over the last two months absorbing the proposals.

The fundamental question being asked by the Service is: should the Government opt in or out of the Regulation? Even with my zero personal experience and limited understanding of the work of cross-border insolvencies, it seems to me a no-brainer (well, the way the Service has argued it anyway). The Call for Evidence also asks questions on elements of the proposals likely to impact most on UK insolvency with a view to developing a negotiating mandate for the UK.

The Insolvency Service’s Call for Evidence can be found at: and the EC’s full proposals at: I’ve set out below the proposals as they appear in the Service’s consultation.

In or Out?

By opting in, the UK can engage in negotiations in order to finalise the proposals, but it will not be able to opt out subsequently and so the UK will be bound by the final Regulation, whatever its form.

If the UK does not opt in, it can only observe the process; it may decide to opt in later, but it will need the Member States’ consent. If the UK does not opt in to the final Regulation at all, it may mean that the UK will remain bound by the existing Regulation. This could cause much confusion when dealing with an insolvency that crosses the border of an opted-in Member State and, as the Impact Assessment puts it, “the UK is generally considered to be a good environment for cross-border insolvency resolution, and this scenario would undermine that position” (paragraph 30).

An alternative scenario if the UK does not opt in is that the European Council may decide that the existing Regulation in its current form could no longer apply to the UK. The Service describes the consequences as: disenfranchisement of UK stakeholders from EU cross-border insolvencies; UK insolvencies failing to have EU-wide recognition; and, whilst the Model Law might help, it might involve multiple court proceedings in the different relevant jurisdictions and thus increased costs and time to get results.

From scanning commentaries on the EC proposals, it appears to me that not opting in is very unlikely. The only seriously negative vibe I’ve picked up – although even this is by no means universal – is a desire to keep Schemes of Arrangement out of the Regulation. As the EC proposes to retain the power of each Member State to decide whether a national insolvency procedure should be included, it seems to me that this is a weak reason for not opting in. And in any event, I would have thought there would be value in having Schemes of Arrangement acquire recognition across the EU. (UPDATE 16/10/2013: okay, I can see now the value of keeping Schemes out of the Regulation – see, for example, the following article by Dentons extolling the virtues of Schemes for essentially foreign companies:

Scope of the Insolvency Regulation

As alluded to above, the EC proposes to extend the scope of the Regulation wider than just “liquidation”, as presently (albeit that the Annex to the 2000 Regulation already includes Administration, VAs, Bankruptcy and Sequestration). It proposes to include proceedings “in which the assets and affairs of the debtor are subject to the control or supervision by a court. Such supervision would include proceedings where the court has no real involvement unless a creditor makes an application to review a decision” (paragraph 21) and “proceedings which include the adjustment of debt and the debtor remains in control of any assets” (paragraph 22). This is where the idea that Schemes of Arrangement will be wrapped up in the Regulation comes from.

Also as mentioned above, the Member State can decide whether to notify a particular national insolvency procedure to be included, but it is proposed there will be a new mechanism whereby the EC then will scrutinise the procedure to ensure that it fits the defined scope of the Regulation.

Jurisdiction for opening insolvency proceedings

The concept of COMI is proposed to be retained, consistent with the body of case law that has developed. The proposals seek to extend the concept to individuals.

The EC proposes to introduce a duty on the court or IP that opens the insolvency proceedings to examine the COMI of the debtor and specify the ground on which their jurisdiction is decided. Creditors from other Member States shall have the right to challenge the decision.

Secondary proceedings

It is proposed that the court receiving an application to open secondary proceedings must inform the office-holder of the main proceedings and allow him/her to be heard before the court makes its decision. The main proceedings’ office-holder will be entitled to ask for the application for secondary proceedings to be stayed, if they are not necessary to protect the interests of local creditors.

The proposal removes the restriction that secondary proceedings must be winding-up proceedings; it is proposed that they can be any proceedings available under the law of that Member State, including restructuring.

In addition, it is proposed that the courts in the main and secondary proceedings be obliged to communicate and cooperate with each other and that a similar obligation will be on the office-holder to communicate and cooperate with the court in the other Member State involved in the proceedings.

Publicity of proceedings and lodging of claims

“Each Member State will be required to maintain a public register(s) of insolvency decisions relating to companies and self-employed individuals, which must be internet based and free of charge. This requirement does not extend to insolvency proceedings concerning non-trading individuals or consumers” (paragraph 32). The register will contain basic information on the insolvency (albeit more than is currently on Companies House; for example, the information must include the court and reference number) plus a date for lodging claims. “Each register will be searchable via the European e-justice portal, with an interconnected search facility” (paragraph 33).

The EC proposes the provision of two standard forms for foreign creditors – a notice of insolvency and claim form – which will be made available (by whom? I think by the European e-justice portal) in all official EU languages. Foreign creditors must be given at least 45 days to lodge a claim, irrespective of any national laws specifying shorter timescales.

Groups of companies

The EC proposes to retain the Regulation’s entity-by-entity approach to the insolvencies of group companies, but seeks to improve coordination of efforts. Thus courts and office-holders involved in different proceedings on group companies will be obliged to communicate and cooperate.

It is proposed that the office-holder of an insolvent group company will be entitled to be heard in any opening proceedings on any other group company and will have the right to request a stay. An office-holder will also be able to participate in any insolvency proceedings on other group companies, for example in creditors’ meetings. As the EC puts it, “these procedural tools enable the liquidator [i.e. office-holder] which has the biggest interest in the successful restructuring of all companies concerned to officially submit his reorganisation plan in the proceedings concerning a group member, even if the liquidator in these proceedings is unwilling to cooperate or is opposed to the plan” (page 9 of the EC proposal).

The proposals are not intended to interfere with a strategy of pursuing a single set of insolvency proceedings over a highly integrated group of companies when it is determined that their COMI is in one jurisdiction.

Of course, this is all subject to negotiation and time… probably lots of time…

UPDATE: On 15 April 2013, it was announced that the Government has decided to opt in to the proposal. This followed a unanimous response in favour of opting in by those who responded to the consultation. The written ministerial statement and the consultation responses can be accessed from:

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Anticipated Changes to the Insolvency Regulatory Landscape in 2013 and Beyond

We seem to have avoided major changes in 2012: no new/revised SIPs, no significant changes to legislation… does that mean it is all being stored up for 2013?

Here are a few developments that I’ll be looking out for next year:

• A Ministerial review on IPs’ fees – preliminary report expected in April 2013 with final recommendations in June 2013:

• Changes to the RPBs’ complaints systems, including common sanctions guidance and an Insolvency Service-hosted site for lodging complaints and for publicising sanctions:

• HM Treasury’s review of the Special Administration regime for investment banks – report to the Treasury by the end of January 2013 with a fuller report expected by end of June 2013:

• Changes to collective redundancy legislation… will there be any reference to any insolvency exemptions? Draft regulations expected in the New Year, to come into effect on 6 April 2013:

• Progression of the Enterprise & Regulatory Reform Bill – currently at the House of Lord Committee stage:

• Outcome of the Red Tape Challenge on insolvency – Insolvency Service to set out proposals to be considered by Ministers in early 2013: Dear IP 56 (not yet posted to the Service’s website)

• Revised SIP3 and SIP16 to be issued for consultation (per IPA autumn roadshows)?

• Development of the Scottish Government’s plans for bankruptcy law reform:

• The Charitable Incorporated Organisations (Insolvency and Dissolution) Regulations 2012 come into force on 2 January 2013 (thanks to Jo Harris for pointing these out) – I guess they are what they are, but I would like to see a user-friendly summary of them:

• The Financial Services Act comes into force on 1 April 2013… with what direct impact on IPs? I confess that it is not something that I know a lot about, but I do know that from it is created the Financial Conduct Authority, which (from 1 April 2014) will take on consumer credit regulation from the OFT so it may well affect IPs’ (and RPBs’ group) consumer credit licences:

• And further afield, changes to the EC’s 2000 Insolvency Regulations (although perhaps further away than 2013?):

Have I missed anything, do you think..?

I’ll also take this opportunity to mention that I reproduce my blog posts into pdfs every couple of months or so – I have added these to a new page on this blog, but I email them direct to those who have asked. If you would like to be added to this emailing list, please drop me a line at I have also started on twitter (@mbmoving); I am a complete novice, but I am hoping to use it to make immediate reference to news items on subjects such as those above (but I’ll continue to blog). Finally, I have given my blog a new look for the New Year – a photos from my trip to Patagonia in January 2012.

Have a lovely few days/weeks off, everyone, and I hope I get to meet up with some of you again sometime in the next year, when I emerge finally from all my unpleasant experiences of 2012.